Friday, May 22, 2020
The final course project was creating an interprofessional team (IPT), function as a leader and take part in the stages of group development, setting of the team roles and goals, identifying communication patterns, and team analysis to discuss an issue at the microsystem level at our facility. The issue that is being addressed is post-transplant steroid associated hyperglycemia. For patients that have new onset diabetes after transplant (NODAT) whether immediately post-operative period or during a rejection episode is an issue that needs attention. The patient has a poor understanding of the blood sugar monitoring, insulin administering, and dieting. A date, time, and location was secured that was conducive to the team members schedule.Ã¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦Fresh kidney transplant patients will be tapered from steroids over four months, however they will always take a small dose of steroids. Both types of patients will receive one gram of steroids on two separate days. Now, those patients that are admitted for steroid recycle due to rejection will receive one gram of steroids for one day. Then, the steroids will be tapered for a week via intravenously until the oral form of prednisone can be started. And then, the taper starts as listed above for each organ. Even though this regimen starts in the hospital, it will extend over to the outpatient clinic. Participants The participants of the IPT were chosen for their expertise, years of experience, certification, and passion for the patient-centered challenge. All the participants work in transplant administration. None of these individuals divide their time between the hospital and transplant administration. Too, they only see transplant patients in the in-patient and out-patient setting. The IPT members are as follows with their credentials, education, experience, expertise: PA-C, MPAS, Transplant Physician Extender, 10 Ã ½ years as a physician assistant, 8 years as a transplant physician assistant; one transplant coordinator, RN, CCTN, 7 Ã ½ years as a nurse, 2 years as a transplant coordinator, 3 years as a certified transplant nurse; MS, RDN, LD, CNSC, Transplant Nutrition Specialist, Nutritionist, 24 years as a dietician, 13 years as certified nutrition support clinician,Show MoreRelatedIntroduction. The Final Course Project Was Creating An2049 Words Ã |Ã 9 PagesIntroduction The final course project was creating an interprofessional team (IPT), function as a leader and take part in the stages of group development, setting of the team roles and goals, identifying communication patterns, and team analysis to discuss an issue at the microsystem level at our facility. The issue that is being addressed is post-transplant steroid associated hyperglycemia. For patients that have new onset diabetes after transplant (NODAT) whether immediate post-operative period
Saturday, May 9, 2020
Service Learning Essay Topics Tips & Guide Inspiration to make your own advertising or media argumentative essay topics isn't tricky to discover. The greatest argumentative essay writing service on the world wide web is a business that gives good quality and reasonably priced help on argumentative essay and argumentative essay topics. If you're struggling, you always have the option to get help by employing an essay writing service such as ours. You may use a variety of examples that can be found on the net at no cost. The essay is easily among the most troublesome sections of the college application practice. The primary goal of topic choice for a proposal essay is to demonstrate the idea can be put into place in practice. College application essay topics are a vital portion of an entertaining and compelling bit of writing. Still, figuring out the very best topic for your essay isn't your only concern for a student. It is crucial to mention that the idea doesn't need to be a good one. The very best thing is to pick a topic that will provide you with an opportunity to present new ideas or a fresh perspective on a problem. Obviously, you might pick any topic, nobody could ever know that you're describing experience that you never actually had, but don't forget that it is always simpler to tell the truth than to invent lies. When you're picking your topic, remember that it's much simpler to write about something which you currently have interest ineven in case you don't know a good deal about it. Before writing argumentative essay, a suitable comprehension of the subject ought to be developed, and relevant and authentic material ought to be used. In choosing your topic, it's frequently a good notion to start out with a subject which you already have some familiarity with. Otherwise, you have to look at a number of the easy compare and contrast essay topics on the many scientific innovations. The goal isn't just to inform but to offer person al reflection and philosophies throughout the story-telling too. Whispered Service Learning Essay Topics Secrets If you need to compose your whole essay in 1 day, do your very best to give yourself breaks so you don't burn out. Furthermore, you can capture reader attention with the aid of funny essay topics. Since you can see, several of the topics listed are new and tackle the present issues happening in the World today. Should you decide you must chat about one of the cliche essay topics mentioned previously, a great means to tell a more prevalent story is to concentrate on one specific moment and build from that point. 1 important thing which you should do when writing your essay is to allow it to be personal. In general, you can observe that writing a persuasive essay isn't a brain surgery. An argumentative essay is a certain sort of academic writing. If you haven't been provided a prompt to write about, you must produce your own interesting creative essays. At precisely the same time, it's an excellent persuasive essay idea. Writing about nuclear weapons is always a great idea. The Unexposed Secret of Service Learning Essay Topics It's possible to select an intriguing topic from any area of science. Deciding on your topic isn't that easy. Technology is potentially the most renowned topic to speak about today. The Characteristics of Service Learning Essay Topics You will need to decide what you wish to write in your essay. It is possible to buy argumentative essay at their site. A proposal essay is quite easy to comprehend. Argumentative essays are a few of the best that you can write as a student. In some instances, the college will give an essay topic for you. Consequently, students may think of different thesis for unique themes to compose essays on hamlet. It's therefore important to thoroughly consider different college essay topics. Following are a few of the suggested sociology essay topic for those students that are unable to decide on a great topic for their assignment. Writing argumentative essay is a complicated undertaking, as it requires the presence of many skills at the identical moment. Psychology can supply a wealth of interesting matters to discuss. For instance, a sociology professor may supply an overall topic like the effects of poverty in urban environments. Many students have a tendency to encounter the writing issues due to the shortage of appropriate understanding. The college essay is among the most crucial characteristics of your college application. A college essay topic may or might not be freely dependent on the student based on the cour se and the professor. For instance, you can opt for a topic for elementary, middle, or higher school. There are several persuasive essay topics to pick from to finish your high school or college assignment. Finding the Best Service Learning Essay Topics Thanks to the correct option of presentation style and a thorough understanding of the goals you need to accomplish in your essay, there are many categories essay themes may be broken into. The college essays must be organized in the particular format and design based on the instructions given. Choosing topics for argumentative essays is very important for your general success. Occasionally, selecting a perfect argumentative essay topics will be quite tough. What You Don't Know About Service Learning Essay Topics Remember your essay is about solving problems, thus a solution ought to be a highlight of the essay. If as you are preparing a report you merely analyze specific literature, the essay demands a superb penetration i nto the issue. Ask your teacher in the event you have any suspicions about this issue you have decided on.
Wednesday, May 6, 2020
string(166) " years and 2755 at 18 years of age \(male\) This is the lifestage that requires the most nutritional needs because the appetite increases and they are still growing\." Diet variations at different lifestages (P1, M1 D1) All human beings require certain essential nutrients in order to survive. The concept of a healthy, balanced diet is to eat a wide variety of foods because all foods contain different nutrients therefore the wider the variety eaten, the more nutrients provided. A balanced diet consists of seven main groups of food which are described below. We will write a custom essay sample on Unit 9 Impact of Diet on Health or any similar topic only for you Order Now Components of a healthy diet: Protein Carbohydrates Fats Vitamins Minerals Fibre Water |Nutrient |Where found |Purpose | |proteins |Meat, fish, eggs, milk, cheese, nuts, cereals, |Proteins promote growth and they are also essential for the | | |tofu and beans |replacement and renewal of body cells. They are essential for | | | |everyone and must be eaten everyday | |Carbohydrates |Sugar, potatoes, bread, rice, flour, cereals, |Carbohydrates, also known as starches, are used by the body to | | |pasta, some root vegetables such as yams and |provide energy and heat. They are essential to provide and | | |sweet potatoes |energy source, but if they are eaten to xcess they will be | | | |stored as fat | |Fats |Butter, margarine, cooking oil, dripping, meat |Fats are a very concentrated source of heat and energy, but if | | |fat, cream, soured cream, milk, cheese, egg yolks|they are eaten to excess they will be stored by the body in the| | | |adipose layer just beneath the skin. Fish and seed oils such | | | |as linseed or olive oil, can help to protect against heart | | | |disease | |Vitamin A |Liver, fish oils, milk, butter, eggs and cheese |Protects from infection and contributes to growth. Lack of | | |and can be made by the body from carotene which |vitamin A can cause eye problems | | |is found in carrots, tomatoes and green | | | |vegetables | | |Vitamin B |Cereals, liver, yeast and nuts |This is a large group of complex vitamins, all of which are | | | |essential for maintaining good skin. Lack of vitamin B may be | | | |responsible for some diseases of the nervous system | |Vitamin C |Citrus fruits, strawberries, potatoes and some |Must be taken each day as it cannot be stored. Lack of vitamin| | |green vegetables |C can cause scurvy, a disease that causes bleeding in the gums | | | |and is very serious. People who have a lack of vitamin C are | | | |more prone to coughs and colds | |Vitamin D |Eggs and fish oils and made by the body when the |Vitamin D enables calcium to be absorbed to strengthen and | | |skin is exposed to sunlight |develop bones and teeth. A severe shortage of vitamin D will | | | |lead to rickets, a deforming disease seen in children whose | | | |bones do not develop adequately | |Vitamin E |Wheatgerm, cereals, egg yolk. Liver and milk |This helps to prevent cell damage and degeneration | |Minerals |A wider range of minerals are essential for |Iron is important for the formation of red blood cells and a | | |health and are found in eggs, cocoa, liver, baked|lack of iron can lead to anaemia. Calcium is used for | | |beans, cheese and milk |developing firm bones. Sodium is important for maintaining the| | | |fluid balance of the body, but an excess of sodium can be a | | | |contributory cause of oedema (fluid retention) | In addition to the nutrients in the above table, a good intake of fibre is recommended to prevent constipation and to help keep the gut healthy and approximately 2 litres of liquid should be drunk per day. This can take the form of water, fruit juice, tea, coffee (caffeine-free are preferred) and any type of non-alcoholic drink. This is to keep the body hydrated and help flush out any toxins that may be present. Other benefits include clearer skin and a healthy mind. It is important for the health and well-being of individuals that they eat a balanced diet. This is to ensure that their nutritional needs are being met. These needs vary at different lifestages as described below: Infancy (0-3 years) Calorie intake:515 up to 3 months and 1165 at 3 years of age (female) 545 up to 3 months and 1230 at 3 years of age (male) At birth babies get their nutrition from milk, either breast or formula. Breast milk contains all the nutrients babies need in the correct amounts and, although it is low in iron and copper, the baby has enough of these stored until it starts eating solid food. It also contains antibodies to help fight infections and is easy to digest. Formula milk needs to be made up in specific concentrations to avoid damage to the kidneys and all equipment used, should be sterilised to prevent the risk of infection. CowÃ¢â¬â¢s milk should not be given to babies under twelve months as it contains too much salt and protein and not enough iron and other nutrients to meet their needs. The introduction of solid food is called weaning and should start at about four months of age. Starting before this time may cause problems in later life such as allergies and obesity. Foods that should be gradually introduced include cereals, fruit and vegetables, egg yolk and finely minced meat. These should be purified or mashed as babies will not have all of their teeth at this stage. As the baby gets to 12 Ã¢â¬â 18 months they will be eating the same meals as the family but shouldnÃ¢â¬â¢t have any salt or sugar added to their food (maximum of 1g of salt a day is the recommended allowance and adding sugar will encourage a sweet tooth which could lead to tooth decay). Childhood (4 Ã¢â¬â 10 years) Calorie intake:1545 up to 4 years and 1740 at 10 years of age (female) 1715 up to 4 years and 1970 at 10 years of age (male) This is a period of lots of activity. The child is also growing fast at this stage and needs plenty of protein to encourage healthy growth and repair. They need the same amount of vitamins and minerals as adults so should be encouraged to eat fish, meat, eggs, potatoes, pasta, rice, fruit and vegetables. They should not be given many sweets, crisps, biscuits or fizzy drinks as the sugar in these products, has no nutritional value, only additional calories and this can lead to childhood obesity. A large intake of sugar will also lead to tooth decay. Adolescence (11 Ã¢â¬â 18 years) Calorie intake:1845 up to 11 years and 2110 at 18 years of age (female) 2220 up to 11 years and 2755 at 18 years of age (male) This is the lifestage that requires the most nutritional needs because the appetite increases and they are still growing. You read "Unit 9 Impact of Diet on Health" in category "Papers" As well as eating sensibly, adolescents need to be encouraged to maintain a regular amount of physical activity and avoid eating too many sweets, crisps, etc. The energy given should be from sources such as rice, pasta, potatoes and bread rather from sugar-laden foods because although the sugar provides a rush of energy, it is packed with calories and the energy rush is short-lived therefore creating a craving for more sugar. Adulthood (19 Ã¢â¬â 65 years) Calorie intake:1940 up to 19 years and 1900 at 65 years of age (female) 2550 up to 19 years and 2380 at 65 years of age (male) During this lifestage the nutritional needs reduce due to age. A healthy diet of complex carbohydrates (such as bread, potatoes, rice or pasta) and proteins (meat, fish, eggs, cheese, fruit and vegetables) should be eaten and sugary and fatty foods should be kept to a minimum. Regular physical activity should still be taken and alcohol should be limited because it adds calories to the diet. Pregnancy and breastfeeding require additional nutritional needs in order to provide nutrition for the baby. Contrary to popular belief, only an extra 200 calories are required in the last trimester of pregnancy followed by between 450 and 570 during breastfeeding. This is to give extra energy to the mother whilst carrying the baby and then to make the breast milk. Folic acid-rich foods or supplements are advised in the pregnancy planning stages as this will help prevent damage to the foetus, in particular, spina bifida. Later Adulthood (65+ years) Calorie intake:1900 at 65 and 1810 at 75+ years of age (female) 2330 at 65 and 2100 at 75+ years of age (male) As people age they become less mobile so energy requirements decrease. Appetite also decreases so itÃ¢â¬â¢s important for the diet to contain concentrated amounts of protein, vitamins and minerals. Gentle exercise should be encouraged. Taste buds become less efficient but adding extra flavouring to food in the form of salt should be avoided as itÃ¢â¬â¢s known to cause high blood pressure. The use of herbs and spices is a better alternative. The average calorific value at each lifestage has been included as a guide to show the energy requirements needed. As energy levels start to increase in childhood, so does the calorie level needed to maintain it. Energy is highest among adolescents and therefore they need more calories to even it out. If they have too few, they will lose weight and, of course, too many and they will gain weight. There are other factors to consider when deciding whether a personÃ¢â¬â¢s nutritional needs are being met, such as: Ã¢â¬ ¢ The type of job a person does Ã¢â¬â someone doing a sedentary job will not have the same needs as a person who has a very active job. The latter will more than likely burn off excess energy therefore needing fewer calories Ã¢â¬ ¢ Their likes and dislikes Ã¢â¬â many people donÃ¢â¬â¢t like either the look or the taste of some fruit and vegetables for example. Disguising it in a variety of dishes or perhaps cooking it an entirely different way could be a means to overcome this. Alternatives to meat should be found for non-meat eaters as protein is an essential part of any diet and a requirement for growth and repair. The level of exercise taken Ã¢â¬â a very active personÃ¢â¬â¢s needs will be higher than that of a non-active person so more nutrients will be needed for sustainability. Ã¢â¬ ¢ The personÃ¢â¬â¢s health Ã¢â¬â someone suffering from high blood pressure will need to drastically cut back on salt or someone suffering from high cholesterol will need to cut back on fatty foods. Ã¢â¬ ¢ The availability of food Ã¢â¬â undernutrition is caused when a diet is made up of mainly carbohydrates and not much protein or fats. This can occur in under-developed countries where lost harvests occur due to flooding, poor soil conditions or droughts. Ã¢â¬ ¢ Religious or cultural decisions Ã¢â¬â the eating of certain meats is banned in some cultures therefore protein is need from other sources. The actual covering of the body may prevent girls from specific religious backgrounds, from receiving the necessary sunlight that could help keep the disease rickets away, so a diet high in vitamin D is required. Socio-economic influences on diet (P2) Religion/Culture Belonging to a specific religion or culture could influence the food that you eat. Buddists, for example, are vegetarian therefore donÃ¢â¬â¢t eat meat, poultry, game or fish. They do, however, eat eggs and dairy products but would still need to eat a varied diet and combine plant proteins to ensure they get the nutrients they need. Another example is the lack of iron in a traditional Asian diet. Iron is needed to form haemoglobin in red blood cells and lack of it could lead to anaemia therefore additional sources need to be found such as supplements or foodstuffs such as offal, bread, flour, cereal products, potatoes and vegetables. Social Class Generally, people from a higher social class have a more varied diet than those from lower ones. They tend to have more money to buy fresh fruit and vegetables and lean cuts of meat whereas the others have to make to with cheaper, processed food, thus affecting their health in the long term. Scientific research has clearly demonstrated that what and how much we eat profoundly affects growth, development, aging, and the ability to enjoy life to its fullest. Dietary intake and lack of exercise is linked to risks for development of a variety of common, chronic diseases that are disabling and life-threatening. (http://www. diagnose-me. com). The Media Information publicised on television, radio and in newspapers can have a tremendous impact on diet. A recent scare on a Bernard Matthew turkey farm led to up to a 30% drop in sales of his turkeys (http://news. bbc. co. uk/). This was due to bird flu being discovered on his Suffolk farm which prompted the culling of 160,000 birds. 200 staff were also laid off which could mean that their diets were affected because of lack of wages. Previous scares include the salmonella egg scare and the cjd scare, both having huge impact on sales of the product. Personal Preference Some people choose not to eat meat, fish, eggs or any animal products either because of their religion or culture or because they donÃ¢â¬â¢t agree with the killing of animals. In these cases protein, and any other missing nutrients, must be found in other sources. Personal taste will also influence the food a person eats because if they donÃ¢â¬â¢t like it, they wonÃ¢â¬â¢t eat it! Availability of Food Undernutrition can be caused by a diet of mainly carbohydrates, which could be caused by poor soil conditions and lost harvests in developing countries. Overnutrition can be caused by having a good variety of food all year round but this would be found in developed countries where much of the food is home grown or air travel makes it easy to have it flown in. Living near to a supermarket would allow good availability of a wide variety of food as opposed to a small shop that wouldnÃ¢â¬â¢t have the same type of stock. Prices in supermarkets are also considerably lower than in local shops therefore making it possible to buy more healthily. Possible results of an unbalanced diet (P3, M2) A balanced diet should be made up of approximately 50% carbohydrates such as fruits, vegetables, cereals, bread and pasta, 20% protein (lean meats, poultry, fish, nuts and beans) and 30% total fat (no more than 10% saturated fat). This has been depicted by the diagram below: Taken from www. tmbc. gov. uk Failure to eat a good balanced diet could result in a number of health problems stemming from malnutrition. Malnutrition is the word used to describe either overnutrition (eating too much of a certain nutrient) or undernutrition (a lack of a specific nutrient or nutrients in general). Type 2 diabetes is a classic example of overnutrition. It results from eating a diet consisting of too much sugar and fat. Consequently, the pancreas cannot produce enough insulin for the cells to absorb glucose from the blood or the body becomes resistant to the insulin that is produced. Typical symptoms include thirst, tiredness and excessive urination. To try to avoid the onset of diabetes, a diet consisting of low-fat alternatives, fibre, starchy foods, fruit and vegetables should be eaten. Complications of diabetes could occur if the person smokes or has high blood pressure so smoking should be stopped and blood pressure checked regularly. One specific nutrient deficiency is anaemia and is caused by lack of iron. Iron is necessary for the making of red blood cells and in the bodyÃ¢â¬â¢s use of oxygen. Anaemia is a deficiency of red blood cells, which can lead to a lack of oxygen-carrying ability, causing unusual tiredness and other symptoms. The deficiency occurs either through the reduced production or an increased loss of red blood cells. These cells are manufactured in the bone marrow and have a life expectancy of approximately four months. Iron deficiency results mostly from eating a poor diet. A lack of iron in the diet is common in vegetarians because the main general dietary source is red meat and babies can also suffer from lack of iron, especially if theyÃ¢â¬â¢ve been born prematurely. A varied diet including red meat, liver, wholemeal bread, cereals, eggs and dried fruit will ensure that the required level of iron is consumed. Other conditions resulting from a poor diet include: Rickets Ã¢â¬â lack of vitamin D, calcium, or phosphate, which leads to softening and weakening of the bones Scurvy Ã¢â¬â characterized by general weakness, anaemia, gum disease (gingivitis), and skin haemorrhages resulting from a lack of ascorbic acid (vitamin C) in the diet Beriberi Ã¢â¬â vitamin deficiency disease in which the body does not have enough thiamine (vitamin B-1). Tooth decay Ã¢â¬â plaque on teeth caused by excess sugar in diet Night blindness Ã¢â¬â lack of vitamin A, can lead to complete blindness if not treated Marasmus Ã¢â¬â inadequate intake of protein and calories usually affecting young children in developing countries Kwashiorkor Ã¢â¬â malnutrition caused by inadequate protein intake usually encountered in developing countries Pellagra Ã¢â¬â a disease that occurs when a person does not get enough niacin (one of the B complex vitamins) or tryptophan (an amino acid) in their diet. Foods for diabetics should be: Low in fat Low in salt Low in sugar High in starchy carbohydrates High in vegetables High in fruit Use this food pyramid to make healthy choices Ã¢â¬â essential for diabetes sufferers [pic] (Taken from http://www. fda. gov/diabetes/food. html#3) Two day diet plan for two service users with specific dietary needs (P4, M3, D2) The following two-day diet plans have been created for a person suffering with type 2 diab etes and one suffering from anaemia. Both of these conditions have been previously described in P3 and M2. Day one for a diabetic Breakfast: 1 slice wholemeal toast with low-fat spread and scrambled egg. Cup of preferred beverage (no sugar added Ã¢â¬â use alternative sweetener) Mid-morning: banana, fruit juice Lunch: tuna salad sandwich, muesli and yoghurt Mid-afternoon: grapes/other fruit Dinner: Chicken breast (grilled), mixed rice, peas and sweetcorn Supper: cheese and crackers Day two for a diabetic Breakfast: cereal with semi-skimmed milk. Cup of preferred beverage Mid-morning: slice of wholemeal toast with tomato . Lunch: jacket potato with beans and side salad Mid-afternoon: fruit salad Dinner: grilled tuna steak, broccoli, cauliflower, new potatoes Supper: carrot and celery sticks with low fat dip Nb: low-fat, low-sugar varieties of food should be used. Sugar alternatives should be used where possible. Food should be grilled or baked rather than fried (if frying is necessary use olive, sunflower or rapeseed oil). Flavouring should be in the form of herbs or spices rather than salt to avoid high blood pressure. Fizzy or sugar-laden drinks should be replaced by water, low-sugar and caffeine-free varieties. Day one for an anaemic Breakfast: raisin bran cereal with semi-skimmed milk Mid-morning: handful of sunflower seeds Lunch: wholewheat pitta bread with turkey, salad and new potatoes with skins Mid-afternoon: muffin with low-fat spread Dinner: liver and onions, mashed potatoes, peas Supper: watermelon Day two for an anaemic Breakfast: oatmeal with semi-skimmed milk Mid-morning: apricots Lunch: tinned sardines on wholewheat toast Mid-morning: packet of twiglets Dinner: beef, potatoes, green beans, broccoli, carrots Supper: cup of oxo with 2 cream crackers As explained previously, once diagnosed with some form of medical condition it is important to change the diet by introducing foodstuffs relative to the condition. In the case of a diabetic, at least five portions of a variety of fruit and vegetables should be eaten per day and the bulk of most meals should be starch-based foods such as cereals, wholegrain, bread, potatoes, rice and pasta. Fatty meats, cheeses, full-cream milk, fried food and butter should be avoided. Low-fat alternatives and foods including mono or poly-unsaturated fats are advised as are 2 Ã¢â¬â 3 portions of fish per week including oily such as mackerel, herrings, kippers, salmon and fresh tuna. Any frying should be done in oils such as sunflower, rapeseed or olive. The diet should also be low in salt as excessive salt can cause high blood pressure which could contribute to developing complications such as heart disease, stroke and eye problems. Alcohol should be drunk in moderation as a little can help protect from heart disease but excessive amounts can be very harmful. The meals chosen for the anaemic are rich in iron but are still varied enough to include other nutrients necessary for good health. It is suggested that an average man needs to digest 10 Ã¢â¬â 18 mg of dietary iron each day and a woman should digest 18mg or more. If diet alone cannot meet this requirement, additional supplements should be considered. A good tip is to eat more foods containing vitamin C as this enhances the absorption of iron into the body (particularly good for vegetarians). The two-day meal plan meets the needs of both the diabetic and the anaemic by including the foods rich in the lacking nutrients. They are hopefully varied enough but simple enough to keep the individuals interested in sticking to a new way of eating therefore allowing them to manage their condition properly. (P5, M4) Safe practices in preparing, cooking and serving food The microbes on our food that can cause food poisoning are usually controlled by heating (cooking) and/or chilling (refrigerating) our food, but given the chance they can easily spread around the kitchen Ã¢â¬â via our hands, chopping boards, cloths, knives and other utensils. If they are allowed to cross-contaminate other foods Ã¢â¬â especially cooked and ready-to-eat foods Ã¢â¬â they can make us ill. Good kitchen hygiene and good personal hygiene are important to help control the spread of harmful germs. There are three main safety practices involved in the handling of food; hygiene, temperature and pest control. These are described in more detail below: Hygiene control Food must be kept safe by: Protecting food from contamination by harmful bacteria ? Preventing bacteria from multiplying to dangerous levels ? Destroying harmful bacteria in or on food by thorough cooking ? Disposing of harmful food safely There are basic rules outlining food hygiene which are: ? Continually washing hands prior to touching food, after using the toilet, after touching animals and raw food ? Cover any cuts, spots or sores with a waterproof adhesive dressing ? DonÃ¢â¬â¢t smoke around the preparation of food ? DonÃ¢â¬â¢t allow animals into the area of food preparation ? Cover food to protect it from flies and other insects ? Wrap all food waste and dispose of it in a covered waste bin ? Clean up as you go. Wash surfaces with hot water and detergent ? Wipe spills up immediately with kitchen tissue and place in a covered bin ? Serve food as soon as its prepared ? Never allow raw food to come in contact with cooked food ? Wear clean clothing and be clean yourself ? DonÃ¢â¬â¢t cough or sneeze over food Temperature control The cooking and storage of food must be temperature controlled. The Food Safety (Temperature Control) Regulations 1995 sets out the safe temperatures for the storage, heating and chilling of food. A guide is shown below: MethodTemperature Freezer -180C to 220C Refrigerator Legal requirement 80C; good practice 5 Ã¢â¬â 60C Hot holding foodHot food must be maintained at 630C Reheating manufacturedTemperature of reheated food must reach a Food that has been cookedminimum of 820C Once during manufacture Pest Control Control of pests and use of pesticides are particularly critical in places where food is prepared, served or packaged. Pests that live on or in food include insects (flies, cockroaches and weevils), birds and rodents (rats and mice). Flies can carry up to 6 million bacteria on their bodies and in addition to that, they defecate and regurgitate half-digested food from a previous meal onto food as well as lay eggs in it. Cockroaches can also spread bacteria and leave faeces in food. There are many variants of weevils but the one mainly found in a domestic setting is the grain weevil which lives in stored foods such as flour and grains. If ingested, they can cause E-coli infection or other disease depending on their diet. Rodents contaminate food by either walking on or walking on the work surface. Mice are known to urinate on food. Birds can also carry bacteria and food can be contaminated by bird droppings, feathers or insects that they carry on their bodies. Birds pecking through foil milk bottle tops can also cause contamination. Any premises that stores or manufactures food should be protected in order to prevent possible infection of or damage to it. Food pests tend to like warm, dark, damp undisturbed places so itÃ¢â¬â¢s important for food storage and preparation places to be cool, clean and dry. The building should be of general good repair and a cleaning, sanitising and pest control policy should be in force. Cleaning involves the removal of any debris or dirt from any work surface and/or piece of equipment. Sanitising involves the use of heat and/or chemicals that will remove any microbes present. Pest control is the eradication of any type of pest that may have a change to infect the food. This cannot be effectively accomplished if proper cleaning and sanitising has not been carried out first. Effects of unsafe practices ItÃ¢â¬â¢s estimated there are more than 9 million cases of gastro-enteritis each year in England. For an increasing number of people, itÃ¢â¬â¢s due to food poisoning, something thatÃ¢â¬â¢s preventable. Gastro-enteritis describes symptoms affecting the bowel, such as nausea, vomiting, diarrhoea and stomach pain. Food poisoning is the type of gastro-enteritis caused by eating or drinking something contaminated with micro-organisms or germs, or by toxic substances produced by these germs. These illnesses are often accompanied by fever, muscle aches, shivering and feeling exhausted. These micro-organisms enter the body in one of two ways: 1. In the food. The food isnÃ¢â¬â¢t cooked thoroughly, so the micro-organisms arenÃ¢â¬â¢t killed off. This is often the case with barbecued food, for example. 2. On the food. For example, the person preparing the food doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t wash their hands before handling the food. Taken from http://www. bbc. co. uk/health/conditions/foodpoisoning1. shtml There are different ways for contamination of food to take place, physically and chemically. Physical contaminants include pips, stalks, bones and shells from food, nuts and bolts from equipment, hair, fingernails, jewellery and plasters from the person involved in its preparation or insects and their droppings and eggs. Dust and dirt are also physical contaminants. Chemical contaminants include cleaning agents if they are not kept separate from the food and its preparation area and agricultural chemicals such as pesticides being sprayed on fruit and vegetables. Food in this case needs cleaning thoroughly before eating. Food that has been left over from metal containers should be transferred to a non-metal container and stored in the fridge with a cover on. Acidic and salty food can attack the metal once a can has been opened which, in turn, affects the food. Contamination by bacteria or viruses is known as biological contamination. Toxins are caused by mould, which indicates a dangerous level of bacteria, and causes illness (food poisoning). Examples of this are given overleaf: Microorganism |Source |Symptoms |Incubation period | |Staphylococcus aureus |Unpasteurised milk, people |Abdominat pain or cramp, |1 Ã¢â¬â 6 hrs | | | |vominting, low temperature | | |Bacillus cereus |Cereals, soil and dust |Abdominal pain, diarrhoea and |1 Ã¢â¬â 5 hrs or 8 Ã¢â¬â 16 | | | |vomiting |depending of the form of| | | | |the food poisoning | |Salmonella |Raw poultry, eggs, raw meat, milk, animals, |Abdominal pain, vomiting, |12 Ã¢â¬â 36 hrs | | |insects and sewage |diarrhoea, fever | | |Listeria |Soil, vegetation, untreated milk, meat, |Range from mild flu-like illness |3 Ã¢â¬â 70 days (median | | |poultry, cheeses (especially soft mould-ripened|to meningitis and septacemia. |being 3 weeks) | | |varieties), salad vegetables |Pregnant women are particularly | | | |susceptible | | |E coli |Raw or undercooked meats, untreated water, |Diarrhoea, vomiting, loss of |24 Ã¢â¬â 78 hrs | | |unpasteurised milk and dairy products |appetite, abdominal pain, stomach | | | | |cramps | | |Campylobacter |Raw poultry and meat, unpasteurised milk, |Fever, headache, abdominal pain, |48 Ã¢â¬â 120 hrs | | |untreated water, pets with diarrhoea, birds |diarrhoea | | | |pecking at milk bottle tops | | | There is legislation requiring safe pr actices while preparing and serving food to ensure that itÃ¢â¬â¢s safe to eat. The three main laws are: The Food Safety Act 1990 Ã¢â¬â this aims to protect consumers by preventing illness from the consumption of food and also by preventing them from being misled as to the nature of the food they are purchasing The Food Safety (General Food Hygiene) Regulations 1995 Ã¢â¬â cover basic hygiene principles that businesses must follow and relate to staff, premises and food handling. They affect anyone who owns, manages or works in a food business regardless of size or importance The Food Safety (Temperature Control) Regulations 1995 Ã¢â¬â these cover the safe temperatures that certain foods must be kept. Another food safety system is the Hazard Analysis Critical Control Point (HACCP), which aims to protect food from contamination by risk assessment, i. e. t ensures that all potential hazards are identified from the delivery of raw products to the serving of fully prepared food. The process is designed to highlight any problems and deal with them before any problems will arise. Busin esses not following the laws covering food safety are liable for prosecution so although it may cost money in the short term by having to buy specialist equipment, staff training and various cleaning agents, etc, it could save them losing their business in the long term if these practices were not put in place. Bibliography and References Handout on the Impact of Diet on Health http://pubs. caes. uga. edu/caespubs/pubcd/b927-w. tml accessed 14/04/07 @19:20 hrs http://www. bbc. co. uk/health/conditions/foodpoisoning1. shtml accessed 15/04/07 @ 09:30 hrs http://news. bbc. co. uk accessed 10/04/07 @ 17:20 hrs http://www. diagnose-me. com accessed 08/04/07 @ 20:00 hrs http:// www. drpbody. com accessed 08/05/07 @ 23:30hrs http://www. fda. gov/diabetes/food. html#3 accessed 08/05/07 @ 23:450hrs http://www. food. gov. uk accessed 14/04/07 @18:30 hrs http://www. nlm. nih. gov/medlineplus/ency/encyclopedia_C-Cg. htm accessed 14/04/07 @19:00 hrs http://www. tmbc. gov. uk accessed 10/04/07 @ 17:40 hrs http:// www. uk-legislation. hmso. gov. uk/ accessed 14/04/07 @19:30 hrs http://www. uga. du/nchfp/how/general/images/img_1-7. jpg accessed 08/05/07 @ 23:55hrs Moonie, Neil. , 2003, second edition, BTEC FIRST Caring, Heinemann Education Publishers, Oxford Ã¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬â Micronutrients (needed in small quantities) } Macronutrients (needed in large quantities) } (Taken from http://www. uga. edu/nchfp/how/general/images/img_1-7. jpg) The Food Safety (Temperature Control) Regulations 1995 (Taken from www. drpbody. com) The Food Safety (General Food Hygiene) Regulations 1995 Tiredness, shortness of breath, dizziness and palpitations are all symptoms of iron-deficient anaemia. Make sure you eat iron-rich foods and keep your blood healthy! The Food Safety Act 1990 How to cite Unit 9 Impact of Diet on Health, Papers
Wednesday, April 29, 2020
At an early age of my life I realized everyday had to be planned for maybe because of the risk of living through the day or because of the unforeseen contingencies. I always wake up with a plan In my head and most times I write them out. I did things accordingly with so much composure and ease. When I got admission into the University I had the opportunity to mingle with people with broader minds. They were able to perceive the ingenuity in my lifestyle and exposed me to Project Management. I was most surprised to find out the things I did normally could be a reversion and earn international recognition. I became so interested In perfecting the acts of Initiation which Is the thoughts In my head every morning, Planning, Execution. Monitoring and Closure. There was no other way to describe my happiness when I saw this path to greatness. We will write a custom essay sample on Why I want to be a Project Manager or any similar topic specifically for you Do Not WasteYour Time HIRE WRITER Only 13.90 / page I further learned it could be applied to construction; massive projects in telecommunications and in fact everything else. My ambition began to grow; I wanted to carry out successful projects, engage in complex ones, and supervise people. I was willing to assist every organization in my Institution to attain success in their parties and social events. It dawned on me that project Management was no longer an ambition but a part of me. Ever since, I have Joined a lot of Project Management related groups and forums including Project Management in Depth study on Linked and Green Project Management. I have seen Project Management as a solace for our world today, turning the impossible into possibilities. I have seen some mistakes that occur in project execution due to improper planning and lack of communication. The world needs a generation of people with vast potentials and flexible abilities to outwit the hardship of development. It Is with this discovery that I have decided to strive hard to become a Project Manager who will exercise his duties according to the professions code of ethics to deliver a better world. A Project Manager has the capacity to operate in every aspect of growth within a chosen field and replicate his abilities through team work. I intend to become a Project Manager with strong Project Management muscles.
Friday, March 20, 2020
Suicide Essay Example Suicide Essay Suicide Essay I would like to start this speech by asking what you think of suicide. Has it ever been an option to deal with your struggles in life? Have you ever thought about leaving this world because you donÃ¢â¬â¢t think it understands you? Have you ever imagined yourself cutting a vein, jumping off from a 20-storey building, overdosing yourself with drugs or simply just stop breathing? I mean, seriously, have you? According to the statistics conducted by the World Health Organization, one person commits suicide every 40 seconds counting to millions of suicide deaths at the end of the year. That is why, it is considered as one of the leading causes of death worldwide. Furthermore, suicide rates have increased to 40% from the last 50 years (. So, why do people commit suicide? Kurt Cobain said it was drugs. Vincent Van Gogh said it was the feeling of worthlessness. Virginia Woolf said it was mental illness. Marilyn Monroe said nothing. Nonetheless, most suicides are committed by highly-creative people. Does this mean passion in music, art and literature can drive people to their deaths? Absolutely not! There are different causes of suicides. According to Wikipedia, the common causes of suicides are obviously mental disorders, suffering, unrequited love, stress, guilt, self-sacrifice, catastrophic injuries, financial loss, loneliness, drugs, so on and so forth. However, there can be a lot of reasons behind a suicide attempt of a person. One of the sad truths is most of the time, their reasons are incomprehensible. Famous people who have committed suicide include Vincent Van Gogh, a mentally disturbed Dutch painter who shot himself in the chest; Kurt Cobain, lead vocalist of Nirvana who was believed to have died due to drug overdose; Virginia Woolf, a feminist writer who drowned herself in a river near their house; Sylvia Plath, a notable poet who gassed herself in a microwave oven while her children were sleeping on the other room. Some people take their lives for heroic causes. For example, Mahatma Gandhi protested against the war between the Hindus and Muslim by means of starving himself to death which was successfully stopped before he died. In Japan during World War II, soldiers kill themselves first rather than falling in the hands of the Nazis. Moreover, Japanese pilots also volunteered to sacrifice their lives by crashing their aircrafts to an enemyÃ¢â¬â¢s base. Indeed, people have different views about life. Some even denounce life and believe there is a much better world after it. We cannot always blame mental disorders as the cause of suicide rates. Highly creative people can be sane and appreciative of their life. No matter how troublesome life is, suicide is not always an option to solve problems. Escaping it would only produce more for the ones left behind. Suicide may have been one of the most famous resorts in escaping a problem or a life that is believed to be not worth living. However, environment can also affect a person who is tempted to it. If only we can all be sensitive to the people around us, sometimes a simple smile and good conversation can save someoneÃ¢â¬â¢s life. Suicide. Wikipedia, the free Encyclopedia. 21 October 2008 http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Suicide
Wednesday, March 4, 2020
Part-Time Job Can Strengthen Your College Application When you need to work after school and on weekends, it can be impossible to be involved in many extracurricular activities. Being part of a sports team, marching band, or theater cast simply wont be options for you. The reality for many students is that earning money to support their family or save for college is far more necessary than joining chess club or the swim team. But how does holding a job affect your college applications? After all, selective colleges with holistic admissions are looking for students who have meaningful extracurricular involvement. Thus, students who have to work would seem to be at a significant disadvantage in the college admissions process. The good news is that colleges recognize the importance of having a job. Moreover, they value the personal growth that comes along with work experience. Learn more below. Why Colleges Like Students With Work Experience It can be tempting to wonder how someone who works 15 hours a week at the local department store can measure up to someone who stars on the varsity soccer team or took a leading role in the schools annual theater production. Colleges do, of course, want to enroll athletes, actors, and musicians. But they also want to enroll students who have been good employees. The admissions staff wants to admit a group of students with diverse interests and backgrounds, and work experience is one piece of that equation. Even if your work isnt in any way academic or intellectually challenging, it has a lot of value. Heres why your job looks good on your college application: High school students who successfully hold down a job for a significant period of time have proven that they can manage their time effectively. Its not easy to do well in school while devoting significant hours to work, and effective time management is one of the most important skills that will lead to college success.Students who have jobs have learned to work as part of a team. You cant be selfish as an employee, for success depends upon working well with your colleagues. These collaborative skills translate directly to college success: youll be well prepared to negotiate issues with your roommate, work on group projects, and recognize how your own actions impact others.If youre working to save money for college, youll be highly invested (literally) in your college education. The fact that your hard-earned dollars are going towards your education tells the admissions folks that you are fully committed to your education. College isnt a gift that has been handed to you; rather, it is something that you have worked hard to make happen. That kind of commitment has real value for the college in terms of retention rates, graduation rates, and overall student success. Even a miserable job flipping burgers or washing dishes has value on your application. Youve learned to be responsible, to serve others before yourself, and to make sacrifices to meet your long-term goals. Work experience and maturity tend to go hand-in-hand.Finally, you have a perspective that many college applicants lack. You have experienced first-hand the type of work that millions of people do without a college degree. So unless you were lucky enough to get an intellectually challenging job as a high school student, youll have additional motivation to succeed in college and move on to work that is more personally satisfying. Are Some Jobs Better than Others for College Admissions? Any job - including those at Burger King and the local grocery store - are a plus on your college application. As outlined above, your work experience says a lot about your discipline and potential for college success. That said, some work experiences come with additional benefits. Consider the following: Jobs that provide leadership experience. Colleges want to enroll future leaders, and your job can help show your potential on this front. It often isnt possible for a part-time 18-year-old to be a manager, but some jobs such as being a lifeguard, camp counselor, or academic tutor are leadership positions by definition. In other types of jobs, you might be able to ask your supervisor for leadership opportunities. For example, you might be able to help train new employees or help the company with outreach in the community.Jobs that showÃ your entrepreneurial ability. Its also impressive if youre entrepreneurial and started your own small business whether making jewelry or mowing lawns. Entrepreneurs tend to be creative and self-motivated, qualities that make for excellent college students.Jobs that provide field-specific experience.Ã If you have a strong sense of what you want to study - whether it be medicine, business, chemistry, art, English, or any other major - work experien ce in that field will play well with the admissions folks. As an example, a lot of students want to go into medicine because of the attractive salary, not because of any love of the sciences or the profession. An applicant who has actually worked in a hospital and gained first-hand experience will be a much more informed and compelling applicant. Similarly, a future computer science major who has worked in tech support will be able to craft aÃ well-informed and convincing application. Internships. As a high school student with a thin resumÃ © and no relevant work experience, you may find it impossible to get a job in your area of study. An internship, however, may be a an option. Many internships are unpaid, but they are nevertheless valuable. Those hours you spend working at a publishing house, law firm, or chemistry lab can open doors to future opportunities, and they give you first-hand knowledge of an academic field (something that most college applicants wont have). If unpaid work isnt an option for you, try a compromise: 10 hours a week in a paid job and 5 hours a week as an intern. Is It Okay to Have No Extracurricular Activities? If youre filling out the Common Application, the good news is that work (paid) and internship are both categories listed under activities. Thus, working a job means your extracurricular activity section on the application wont be blank. For other schools, however, you may find that extracurricular activities and work experiences are entirely separate sections of the application. The reality is that even if you have a job, you probably also have extracurricular activities. If you think about the wide range of activities that count as extracurricular, youll probably discover that you have several items you can list in that section of the application. Its also important to realize that your inability to participate in after-school activities doesnt preclude you from extracurricular involvement. Many activities - band, student government, National Honor Society - take place largely during the school day. Others, such as involvement at church or summer volunteer work, can often be scheduled around work commitments. A Final Word About Work and College Applications Holding a job doesnt have to weaken your college application. In fact, you can leverage your work experience to strengthen your application. Experiences at work can provide excellent material for your college application essay, and if youve maintained a strong academic record, colleges will be impressed by the discipline required to balance work and school. You should still try to have other extracurricular activities, but there is nothing wrong with using your job to demonstrate that you are a well-rounded, mature, and responsible applicant.
Sunday, February 16, 2020
European Union Law and European Court of Justice - Research Paper Example As the European Union believes in the principle that there must be harmony and equality of power between both individual entity as well as institutions must exist that why the legal jurisprudence has been changed in such manner. However, there are several such incidents and occasions where, though it is considered that an institution will act neutrally and for the benefit of common citizens, institutions act in a biased manner. Due to this reason, it has become important to introduce judicial protection for the purpose of protecting the fundamental rights of the individuals. While analyzing the constitutional functions of the ECJ Frank Hoffmeister has identified, Ã¢â¬Å"Ensuring access to Court for citizens was identified as the fourth constitutional function. For sure, as with some national Supreme Courts, there is no right to a constitutional complaint against any Community act, including of a legislative nature, allegedly infringing a human right of an EU citizen. Rather, Article 230 (4) of the Treaty allows bringing an action of annulment against a decision addressed to a person or against a decision, which, although in the form of a regulation or a decision addressed to another person, is of direct and individual concern to the former.Ã¢â¬ 2 Thus, the aspect of protecting individual rights has been reasserted by such observation and at the same time, it has become one of the major constitutional functions of the European Court of Justice (ECJ). To serve this purpose and protecting rights of individual citizens, they have not only been provided with the access to the European Court of Justice but at the same time with the aim at strengthening position of the Court the Art 230 has been implemented which is aimed at permitting the court to take the right kind of action to annual community acts.Ã